Bisphenol A induces apoptosis in central neural cells during early development of Xenopus laevis
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2003.10.199
Title: Bisphenol A induces apoptosis in central neural cells during early development of Xenopus laevis
Journal Title: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Volume: 312
Issue: 4
Publication Date: 26 December 2003
Start Page: 877
End Page: 882
Published online: online 19 November 2003
ISSN: 0006-291X

  • a Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, Kagawa Nutrition University, 3-9-21 Chiyoda, Sakado, Saitama 350-0288, Japan

  • b Laboratory of Genomic Informations, Department of Drug Discovery Sciences, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555, Japan

  • c Redox Regulation Research Group, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2 Sakae-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan

  • d Division of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan

  • e Division of Medicinal Safety Science, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan
  • Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA), known to be a xenoestrogen, is widely used in industry and dentistry. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BPA on the early development of Xenopus laevis embryos. Stage 6 embryos were exposed to 10–100 μM BPA. Developmental abnormalities were observed when the embryos were exposed to at least 20 μM BPA, with marked developmental abnormalities, such as crooked vertebrae and developmental defects of the head and abdomen, detected in all embryos up to stage 40. Interestingly, apoptosis occurred specifically in central nervous tissue cells of the brain and spinal cord, as assessed by histological analysis. BPA-induced malformations and apoptosis were not observed in embryos exposed to BPA after stage 10. When embryos were exposed to 10 μM 17β-estradiol (E2), abnormalities were also observed until stage 40. However, the abnormalities induced by BPA and E2 were different and E2 exposure did not induce apoptosis in the central nervous system. Our results indicated that the developmental abnormalities and apoptosis induced by BPA exposure were not inhibited by the addition of E2. In conclusion, we demonstrated that BPA induced marked malformations and specific apoptosis of central nervous system cells during early development of X. laevis embryos, and that these BPA effects appeared to be due to non-estrogenic activities on developmental processes.
    Received: 23 October 2003
    Keywords: Xenopus laevis; Amphibian; Embryo; Early development; Bisphenol A; 17β-Estradiol; Endocrine disruptors; Xenoestrogen; Estrogen receptor; Malformation; Apoptosis; Brain; TUNEL; Histological analysis; Exposure test; Central nerve cell
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